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EV Battery Charger Types

car charging at a charging station

Last updated Dec 21, 2023 | Published on Oct 5, 2023

Fast, reliable, and safe battery chargers are an essential element to accelerate the adoption of electric vehicles. Advancements in electric vehicle (EV) battery technologies are driving the development of high-performance, sustainable, and environmentally friendly transportation ecosystems. According to Fortune Business Insights, the global EV market value is expected to reach almost USD 1.5 trillion by 2030, growing at a 17.8% Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) from 2023 to 2030. Effective EV battery charging infrastructure is a requirement to realize this growth.
Advancement in battery charging technology drives EV adoption

EV Battery Charger Types and Hardware

The diverse EV battery charger types such as Level 1 Charging (120V AC), Level 2 Charging (240V AC), and Superchargers (400-800V DC) are tailored for specific purposes.

Level 1 Charger

Level 1 chargers consist of a cable, connector, control unit, and essential safety features operating at 120-volt Alternating Current (AC) and drawing relatively low power, around 1.44 kilowatts (kW). They offer the slowest charging option and are convenient for overnight charging at home, requiring an extended time to fully charge an EV.

Level 2 Charger

Level 2 chargers are equipped with a cable and connector, control unit, display, and enhanced safety features including ground fault protection and temperature monitoring. These chargers operate at 240 volts AC and offer variable charging speeds, typically ranging from 3.3 kW to 19.2 kW or higher, depending on their capacity. They are commonly deployed in public charging stations, workplaces, and residential installations, offering shorter charging times compared to Level 1 chargers.

Level 3 Charger

Level 3 chargers or Superchargers feature high-capacity components, a liquid cooling system, a charging cable, an advanced control unit, a display, and a payment terminal. These chargers deliver direct current (DC) to the EV battery with power consumption ranging from 50 kW to 350 kW or even higher, enabling shorter charging times when compared to other charging types for the same model.
Advanced charging infrastructure enables short charging times compared to other charging types

EV Battery Charger: Challenges

As EV charger technology advances, the electric vehicle charging landscape confronts a range of challenges encompassing charging infrastructure, charging speed, compatibility, energy supply, costs, range anxiety, and battery degradation. For instance, superchargers generate excessive heat due to the high current passing through relatively small-diameter cables and poses a risk for safe and reliable battery operation. Therefore, effective thermal management is a critical aspect of EV charging station performance, reliability, and safety.

Effective thermal management and engineered material solutions drive EV performance, reliability, safety, and user adoption

Boyd’s Innovative Solutions for EV Battery Charging

Thermal Management

Boyd’s cutting-edge cooling technologies effectively dissipate heat and prevent thermal runaway without introducing excessive weight or size. Harness our extensive knowledge in air-cooling technologies, airflow management, and design and manufacturing to fine-tune cooling performance, ensure secure and reliable charger cable operation, extend charger lifespan, and improve overall performance. Boyd’s liquid cooling systems and customized cold plate applications effectively manage the substantial heat generated as a byproduct of crucial eMobility inverters and other power electronics, enabling the highest level of power conversion efficiency, extended range, and faster charge cycles to improve consumer adoption.

Display and HMIs

Elevate the quality and functionality of displays with Boyd’s premium components, expertly engineered and manufactured to withstand the tough environmental and consumer use factors for your charging station. Our offerings include optically clear adhesives, polarizers, anti-glare films, light control films, brightness enhancing films, reflective films, and light diffusing films. We also provide durable nameplates and branding solutions crafted from a versatile selection of materials, including aluminum, stainless steel, acrylic, polyester, and polycarbonate. Enhance customer experience in outdoor environments without increasing weight or power consumption using our robust switch interfaces designed for optimal performance.

Insulation and Shielding

Optimize the performance of EV chargers while safeguarding against electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio frequency interference (RFI), and challenging environmental conditions with Boyd’s EMI shielding materials, such as foil tapes, fabric over foam, and conductive tapes, foams, and elastomers. Our range of thermal and electrical insulators, including SOLIMIDE®, polyimide, polycarbonate, and polypropylene UL 94-rated insulating films help maintain an ideal thermal operating range in extreme temperatures and provide protection against flame and spark voltages.

Environmental Sealing and Protection

Boyd’s comprehensive range of sealing and gasketing solutions utilizes materials such as silicone foams, closed-cell silicone sponges, polyurethane foam, EVA, vinyl, neoprene, and thermoplastics. We collaborate with flexible adhesives like very high bond tapes, double-coated tapes, transfer tapes, and other materials to efficiently and robustly assemble ingress seals to waterproof charging stations.

Innovate with Boyd

Boyd has decades of experience and expertise delivering thermal solutions for the power management industry and a track record of shipping over a billion eMobility components worldwide. Leverage our liquid cooling and material science heritage to incorporate multiple capabilities into vertically integrated eMobility solutions.

Whether your needs involve safeguarding and cooling EV batteries, enhancing brand identity, or protecting and cooling advanced superchargers, Boyd empowers you to innovate and accelerate your time to market. To learn more about our EV battery charger solutions or to discuss your project needs, schedule a consultation with our experts.

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